Use your Social Work Macro Practice text to read Chapter 7, "Understanding Organizations," pages 188–225
Compare and contrast theory X and theory Y and management by objectives (MBO). Describe each theory before comparing their strengths and weaknesses. Which theory do you consider most applicable to a human organization with which you are affiliated? Explain why. Discuss in the context of an example, though be careful not to disclose identifiable information.
Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior
Make ethical decisions by applying the standards of the NASW Code of Ethics, relevant laws and regulations, models for ethical decision-making, ethical conduct of research, and additional codes of ethics as appropriate to context
Use reflection and self-regulation to manage personal values and maintain professionalism in practice situations
Demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and electronic communication 10
Use technology ethically and appropriately to facilitate practice outcomes 2
Use supervision and consultation to guide professional judgment and behavior 8
Competency 2: Engage Diversity and Difference in Practice Behaviors:
Apply and communicate understanding of the importance of diversity and difference in shaping life experiences in practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels
2, 6, 8
Present themselves as learners and engage clients and constituencies as experts of their own experiences 3, 5
Apply self-awareness and self-regulation to manage the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse clients and constituencies
Competency 3: Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice Behaviors:
Apply their understanding of social, economic, and environmental justice to advocate for human rights at the individual and system levels
Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice 2, 8
Competency 4: Engage In Practice-informed Research and Research-informed Practice Behaviors:
Use practice experience and theory to inform scientific inquiry and research 9
Apply critical thinking to engage in analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings
Use and translate research evidence to inform and improve practice, policy, and service delivery 1, 3, 6, 7, 11
Competency 5: Engage in Policy Practice Behaviors:
Identify social policy at the local, state, and federal level that impacts well-being, service delivery, and access to social services
Assess how social welfare and economic policies impact the delivery of and access to social services 1, 6
Apply critical thinking to analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice
CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text
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Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in- environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies
7, 5, 9
Use empathy, reflection, and interpersonal skills to effectively engage diverse clients and constituencies 3, 4, 6
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities Behaviors:
Collect and organize data, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies 4, 8
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in- environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies
Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assessment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies
Select appropriate intervention strategies based on the assessment, research knowledge, and values and preferences of clients and constituencies
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities Behaviors:
Critically choose and implement interventions to achieve practice goals and enhance capacities of clients and constituencies
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies
Use inter-professional collaboration as appropriate to achieve beneficial practice outcomes 10
Negotiate, mediate, and advocate with and on behalf of diverse clients and constituencies 11
Facilitate effective transitions and endings that advance mutually agreed-on goals 11
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities Behaviors:
Select and use appropriate methods for evaluation of outcomes 12
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the evaluation of outcomes
Critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate intervention and program processes and outcomes 12
Apply evaluation findings to improve practice effectiveness at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels 12
CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text
Adapted with permission of Council on Social Work Education
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Social Work Macro Practice F. Ellen Netting Virginia Commonwealth University
Peter M. Kettner Arizona State University
Steven L. McMurtry University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
M. Lori Thomas University of North Carolina at Charlotte
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1. An Introduction to Macro Practice in Social Work 1 What Is Macro Practice? 1
The Interrelationship of Micro and Macro Social Work Practice 2 Macro-Level Change 3 Macro-Practice Arenas and Roles 4
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Policy Practice 5 A Systematic Approach to Macro Social Work Practice 7
The Foundation of Macro Practice 9 The Importance of Terminology 9
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference 9 Theories, Models, and Approaches 11 Values and Ethics 13
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Ethical and Professional Behavior 16 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-informed Practice (or Practice-informed Research) 17
Four Case Examples 19 Case Example 1: Child Protective Services 19 Case Example 2: Case Management with Older Adults and Disabled Persons 21 Case Example 3: Advocacy and Organizing with Immigrant Youth 23 Case Example 4: Chronic Homelessness 24
Surviving in Professional Practice 26 Summary 27
2. Historical and Contemporary Inf luences on Macro Practice 29 The Context within Which Professional Social Work Emerged 29
Social Conditions 30 Ideological Inf luences 32
The Development of Social Work as a Profession 33 Charity Organization Societies and Settlement Houses 34 Early Social Work Education 35 Recognizing the Importance of Macro Roles 36
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Social Work’s Commitment to Diverse and Oppressed Populations 40 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 40
Native Americans 41 Latinos 42 African Americans 43 Asian Americans 44 Women 45 Persons with Disabilities 46 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Persons 47
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Human Rights and Justice 47
Contemporary Challenges 48 Addressing Poverty and Welfare Reform 48
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Policy Practice 49 Recognizing Income Inequality 50 Assessing Changing Community Patterns of Affiliation and Identification 51 Assessing Changing Organizations and Delivery Systems 52 Wisely Using Technology 54
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Ethical and Professional Behavior 55
The Importance of Change 56 Summary 57
3. Engaging with Diverse Populations 59 Diversity and Difference 59
Advancing Human Rights and Social and Economic Justice 60 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Human Rights and Justice 61
Where Does One Begin? 61
A Framework for Engaging Population Groups 62 Task 1: Start Where the Population Is 63
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 65 Task 2: Assess the Impact of Difference, Discrimination, and Oppression 67 Task 3: Search the Professional Knowledge Base on the Target Population 73
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-informed Practice (or Practice-informed Research) 73
Task 4: Develop Strategies for Authentic Engagement 77 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 82
4. Assessing Community and Organizational Problems 87 The Social Worker’s Entry into an Episode of Macro-Level Change 87
Conditions, Problems, Issues, Needs, and Opportunities 89 Narrowing Down to the Most Useful Data and Information 91
Framing and Ref raming Problems 91 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Assessment 93
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A Framework for Assessing Community and Organizational Problems 94 Task 1: Gather Information from Persons within the Community or Organization 95
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 98 Task 2: Explore the Professional Knowledge Base on the Condition, Problem, Need, or
Opportunity 98 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-informed Practice
(or Practice-informed Research) 106 Task 3: Frame the Problem and Develop Working Hypotheses 107
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 110
5. Understanding Communities 116 Conceptualizing Community 116
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 118 Defining Community 118 Dimensions of Communities 119 Community Functions 122 When Community Functions Fail 124
Community Theories 125 Systems Theories 125 Human, Population, or Social Ecology Theories 130
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 131 Human Behavior Theories 133 Theories about Power, Politics, and Change 137
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Policy Practice 139
Contemporary Perspectives 140 Strengths, Empowerment, and Resiliency Perspectives 141 Asset Mapping 143 Capacity Building 144
Community Practice Models 147 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 149
6. Assessing Communities 153 Engaging Communities 153
Two Community Vignettes 154 Vignette 1: Canyon City 154
Encountering the Community 155 Narrowing the Focus 155 Mobilizing Resources 156
Vignette 2: Lakeside 156 Assessing Major Changes 156 Witnessing the Impact of Change 157
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Implications of the Vignettes 157 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 158
Framework for Community Assessment 159 Task 1: Identify Focal Community 160
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 164 Task 2: Locate Data and Information on Community Needs,
Issues, and Problems 167 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-Informed Practice
(or Practice- Informed Research) 170 Task 3: Assess Community Social and Political Assets 171
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Policy Practice 173 Task 4: Assess Community Structure and Capacity 177 Examine Service Delivery Units 177 Identify Patterns of Inf luence, Control, and Service Delivery 180 Determine Linkages between Units 181
7. Understanding Organizations 188 Conceptualizing organizations 188
Using Theories as Frames and Filters 189
Structural Theories and Perspectives 192 Bureaucratic Theory 192 Scientific and Universalistic Management 194
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-Informed Practice (or Practice-Informed Research) 197
Organizational Goals and the Natural-Systems Perspective 197
Management by Objectives (MBO) 198 Organizations as Open Systems 200 Contingency Theory 201
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 204
Human Resource Theories and Perspectives 205 Human Relations Theory 205 Theory X and Theory Y 207 Quality-Oriented Management 208
Political Theories and Perspectives 211 Decision-making Theory 211 Resource Dependency and Political-Economy Theories 212 Critical and Feminist Theories 214
Symbolic Theories and Perspectives 216 Organizational Culture Theory 217
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 220
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Organizational Learning Theory 222 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Ethical and Professional Behavior 223
8. Assessing Human Service Organizations 226 Engaging Human Service Organizations 226
Two Vignettes of Human Service Organizations 228 Vignette 1: Canyon County Department of
Child Welfare 228 Creating a Dynamic Organization 228 Dismantling a Dynamic Organization 229 Involvement of the County Board 229 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Ethical and Professional Behavior 229
Vignette 2: Lakeside Family Services 230 Historical Development 230 Major Changes Occur 230 The Search for Strategies 230
Implications of the Vignettes 231
Framework for Organizational Assessment 232 Task 1: Identify Focal Organization 232
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Assessment 235 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Human Rights and Justice 236
Task 2: Assess the Organization’s Environmental Relationships 238 Task 3: Assess Internal Organizational Capacity 246 Task 4: Assess the Cultural Competency of this Organization 259
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Diversity and Difference in Practice 261
9. Building Support for the Proposed Change 267 Designing the Intervention 267
Task 1: Develop the Intervention Hypothesis 268 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-informed Practice
(or Practice-informed Research). 272
Building Support 272 Task 2: Define Participants 273
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Engagement 284
Examining System Capacity for Change 286 Task 3: Determine Openness and Commitment to Change 287 Task 4: Strengthen Collective Identity 288
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Assessment 290 Task 5: Identify Outside Opposition to Change 292
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 293
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10. Selecting Appropriate Strategies and Tactics 299 Assessing the Political and Economic Context 299
Task 1: Assess Political and Economic Feasibility 301 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Human Rights and Justice 303
Selecting Approaches to Change 304 Task 2: Select a Change Approach 305
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Policy Practice 305 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Ethical and Professional Behavior 307
Selecting Strategies and Tactics 309 Task 3: Select Strategies and Tactics 309
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 318
11. Planning and Implementing the Intervention 329 Understanding the Logic Model 329
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Research-informed Practice (or Practice-informed Research) 330
Applying the Logic Model to a Case Example 331
A Framework for Planning the Details of the Intervention 333 Task 1: Revisit the Working Hypothesis of Intervention 335
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Assessment 336 Task 2: Set a Goal for the Intervention 336 Task 3: Write Outcome and Process Objectives 336
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 343 Task 4: List Activities for Process Objectives 343 Task 5: Initiate the Action Plan 346
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Intervention 347
12. Monitoring and Evaluating the Intervention 358 The Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation 358
Types of Evaluation 359 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Evaluation 359
How Changes Can Go Wrong 360
A Framework for Evaluating The Change Effort 361 Task 1: Conduct a Process Evaluation 362 Task 2: Conduct an Outcome Evaluation 368
CorE CoMPETEnCy: Evaluation 369 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Evaluation 375 CorE CoMPETEnCy: Evaluation 379
References 383 Glossary 398 Index 405
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Twenty-five years ago, three colleagues at Arizona State University School of Social Work decided to write a book to use in two courses in the foundation macro practice sequence in which we were teaching. At that point, we were using “course packs” comprised of readings f rom professional journals and book chapters, and we needed a textbook that integrated a growing conceptual and empirically based literature on organizational and community change. Through multiple revisions we continued our collaboration, in 2012 adding a fourth author to our team.
Much has changed in 25 years, but our commitment to our original goal remains steadfast. From the beginning, we wanted to recapture a broader definition of social work practice that recognizes that all social workers must be able to engage, assess, and intervene with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. In short, we believed (and continue to believe) that active involvement in community and organizational change represents one of the richest and proudest traditions of social work practice over the last century.
new to This Edition It is our intent in this edition to bring readers abreast of the changes within the field. We have worked to make the sixth edition more practice oriented, integrating more field-based vignettes and examples throughout and elab- orating the planned change model originally introduced in earlier editions. We have incorporated more material on international and global content in order to prepare future practitioners for encountering both domestic and international social problems. We have paid special attention to the use of technology such as social media and electronic advocacy, in addition to video links and media asset recommendations. We have reinforced the role of advocacy in all aspects of social work practice. Structurally, we have rearranged chapters, added a new chapter, de- leted dated material, added new material, and integrated the most up-to-date conceptual and empirical scholarship into all chapters. Across all chapters, at least one-third of all references are new to this edition. In all changes in this edition, we have tried to be as conscientiously attentive and responsive to reviewers’ feedback as possible while ensuring consistency with current professional literature on macro practice.
Specific changes follow:
• Framing Macro Social Work in an International Context. In Chapters 1–2, we have f ramed macro practice within an international context, adding references f rom international journals and information on international codes of ethics, referring to differences in social work education across multiple countries, adding a case example on international social work, and writing a new section entitled “Global Perspectives on Social Work.”
• Adding Content on Diverse Populations. Chapters 3 and 4 have been reversed, placing the chapter on populations before the chapter on problems. In Chapter 3, we lead with a new section on “Advancing Human Rights and Social and Economic Justice,” including new content on cultural humility, cultural competency, whiteness studies, and critical race theory. Another new section, “Developing Strategies for Authentic Engagement” in Chapter 3, includes new material on working with groups, community organizing, and community engagement.
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• Including Alternative Theories. New theoretical content has been added as follows: Critical Race Theory, and Identity Theory (Chapters 3 and 9); Framing Theory (Chapter 4); Assets Mapping, Field Interactional Theory, and Power De- pendency Theory (Chapter 5); and Organizational Culture, Feminist, and Critical Theories (Chapters 7 and 8). Chapter 7 was entirely restructured to tighten up the content on classical theories in order to focus more on contemporary approaches reorganized within four schools of thought.
• Updating Practice Frameworks. All f rameworks have been revised, rearranged, and updated in Chapters 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. New tasks within the f rame- works have been renamed to be more congruent with EPAS competencies and graphical representations of each f ramework are now included. A new task and set of activities on “Identify Focal Community” leads the f ramework in Chapter 6. A new task on “Assessing the Cultural Competency of an Organization” is now featured in Chapter 8. New material has been added to Chapters 11 and 12 on the logic model in an attempt to strengthen the student’s understanding of the relationship between this model and the macro practice procedures we are proposing.
• Adding Content on Technology. Chapters 1 and 2 feature updated information on the wise use of technology. In Chapter 9, a new section called “Strengthen Collective Identity” focuses on how use of the Internet, social-networking sites, and mobile technology can be used to facilitate communication among action system members. This is reinforced by a section on the use of technology in ad- vocating for change in Chapter 10.
• Adding new Chapter on Evaluation. Our original Chapter 11 has been divided into new Chapters 11 and 12. Each chapter has been expanded in light of review- ers’ concerns that more material on the planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating aspects of planned change needed more depth. The new Chapter 11 now introduces and focuses on understanding the logic model, illustrated by a series of new figures that demonstrate the model’s use. Chapter 12 is almost com- pletely new, focusing in detail on monitoring and evaluating.
• Chapter reviews at the end of each chapter allow students to evaluate mastery of skills and competencies learned.
• Marginal media assets are included so that students can search the Internet for relevant content.
Connecting Core Competencies Series The sixth edition of this text is now a part of Pearson Education’s Connecting Core Com- petencies series, which consists of foundation-level texts that make it easier than ever to ensure students’ success in learning the nine core competencies as revised in 2015 by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). This text contains:
• Core Competency Icons throughout the chapters, directly linking the CSWE core competencies to the content of the text. Critical thinking questions are also included to further students’ mastery of the CSWE standards. For easy refer- ence, a chart in the f ront pages of the book displays which competencies are used in each chapter.
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Interactive Enhanced Pearson eText The sixth edition Enhanced eText, produced by Pearson, contains new digital elements to enhance student learning and user experiences:
• Assess your Understanding Quizzes appear at the end of each major section within each chapter, with multiple-choice questions to test students’ knowledge of the chapter content.
• Chapter review Quizzes appear at the end of each chapter, with essay questions to test student’s understanding of major concepts in the chapter.
• Video links are provided throughout the chapters to encourage students to access relevant video content.
Instructor Supplements An Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, and PowerPoint slides are available to accompany this text. They can be downloaded at www.pearsonhighered.com/educator.
The Importance of Macro Practice We contend that social workers who see clients every day and encounter the same prob- lems over and over are the ones who are most aware of the need for macro-level change, and even if they are not in a position to take the lead in initiating change they need to understand the process and be supportive of others who are involved in macro-level efforts. Macro practice, understood within this context, defines the uniqueness of social work practice. Many disciplines claim expertise in working with individuals, groups, and families, but social work has long stood alone in its focus on the organizational, community, and policy contexts within which its clients function. The concept of person-in- environment is not simply a slogan that makes social workers aware of en- vironmental inf luences. It means that social workers recognize that sometimes it is the environment and not the person that needs to change. Mullaly (2007) states that so- cial workers are not simply called to be direct practitioners, but are equally called to be change agents particularly in situations that place service users’ best interests first. Our book is designed to prepare social workers to be agents of change for the purpose of improving people’s quality of life.
We are aware that the history of social work as a profession has been marked by shifts in and tensions between intervention with individuals and intervention with and within larger systems. Early perspectives on the latter tended to focus primarily on policy-level involvements (especially legislative processes). As the need for content on so- cial work administration and management, and community practice was recognized and incorporated into the curriculum of many schools of social work, these topics were also embraced as an area of concentration for those who wanted to work with and within larger systems. In order to manage oversubscribed curricula, students have often been forced to concentrate in either macro or micro areas, creating a false dichotomy, when social work of all professions is uniquely positioned to integrate both.
Therefore, over the years as we taught required foundation-level courses on com- munity and organizational change, and as we worked with students and professionals in the field, we became aware of the changing dynamics of practice and expectations for practitioners. Both students and practitioners were working with populations such as
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homeless persons, members of teen street gangs, victims of domestic violence, chroni- cally unemployed persons, f rail older adults, and other disenf ranchised groups. Although social workers will always need casework and clinical skills to help people in need on a one-to-one basis, it was becoming increasingly evident to many in the profession that they were also expected to intervene at the community level. Typical activities included promoting the development of shelters, developing neighborhood alternatives to gang membership and juvenile incarceration, addressing chronic unemployment, and navigat- ing the complexity of long-term care services as a community problem. It was becoming more and more evident that social workers must be contextual thinkers.
These activities are not new; many closely mirror the work of settlement-house workers in the early days of the profession. Yet, many social work students have tra- ditionally seen themselves as preparing strictly for interventions at the individual or domestic level. It is unexpected and disconcerting when they find themselves being asked to initiate actions and design interventions that will affect large numbers of people and take on problems at the community or organizational level if they are not prepared to undertake and support these kinds of professional activities. When social work practice with macro systems is seen as solely the realm of administrators, community organizers, program planners, and others, a vital linkage to millions of people who struggle daily with environmental constraints has been severed. Macro-level change may, but does not necessarily always, involve large-scale, costly reforms at the national and state levels or the election of candidates more sympathetic to the poor, neglected, and underserved members of society. Sometimes useful macro-level change can involve organizing a local neighborhood to deal with deterioration and blight; sometimes it may mean initiating a self-help group and stepping back so that members will assume leadership roles. Thus, the focus of this book is on enabling social work practitioners to undertake whatever types of macro-level interventions are needed in an informed, analytical way and with a sense of confidence that they can do a competent job and achieve positive results.
As this sixth edition goes to press, schools of social work and professional associations are continuing the ongoing debate about the role of macro social work practice in oversubscribed curricula; and mak ing choices about what content to cover, and which courses to offer and methods to use (e.g., classroom, hybrid, and online), in delivering that content. Reports on the state of macro practice social work hav
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